Daily Archives: 12 September 2016

The Best Beginner Guide of Burgundy Wine最強勃艮第入門指南

grands-crus-range-image-moyen

For many experienced drinkers, French wine should be the indispensable components back in your beginners’ days, Bordeaux, Burgundy or Bourgogne are the most essential ones on every wine list.

corton-charlemagne-image-moyen

There are more than 100 Appellation d’Origine Controlee in Burgundy which is the highest number in France, but the permitted grapes are just Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and Aligote, while Pinot Noir and Chardonnay produce the majority of wine. Despite this, even most wine are produced from single varietal, they smell and taste hugely different, the reason for this is that Burgundy is the most terrior-influenced region, and in this case, terroirs include climate, weather, soil, orientation and their interactions. Burgundy is affected by continental climate where there is hot summer and cold winter, and rain, drought and hail attack the region as well, therefore vintage difference for Burgundy wine is a very dominant factor which decide the price. A burgundy wine from a good vintage will usually be speculated, it is not rare that the prices rise for ten or even a few hundred times.

Burgundy-Wine-Map-wine-folly

Burgundy can be divided by 5 main regions: Chablis, Côte de Nuits, Côte de Beaune, Côte Chalonnaise and Mâconnais. Although Beaujolais is also located in Burgundy, normally we do not include it when refer to Burgundy wine.

Nuits

In Bordeaux, a certain classification is awarded to a specific winery or chateau, but it is in Burgundy that the classification is awarded to a certain piece of land or vineyard, regardless of the producer or winery. As a result, the largest fonts on a Burgundy wine label should be the name of region, rather than the producer or winery.

RSVmap3

Besides Chablis, vineyards are classified into the following: Grand Cru, Premier Cru / 1er Cru, Village and generic regional Bourgogne. In Chablis, there is Petit Chablis below village class.

petitchablis

Cote d’Or is make up of Cote de Nuits and Cote de Beaune, all Grand Cru outside Chablis are found in Cote d’Or, whose area is just about 2% of Burgundy. In 2010 the total production is only less than 2.5 million bottles which is about 1.3% of total production. The less the wine is available, the higher the prices, this is just a very simple economic theory. Grands Échezeaux, La Romanée, La Tâche, Richebourg, Romanée-Conti, Corton, Montrachet are all the familiar names of grand crus. These crus are usually slopes where there is suitable amount of sunlight with good drainage, high quality grapes can be produced. Moreover, strict rules concerning viticulture and vinification are imposed to producers to ensure quality. These grand cru wines are low yield good quality ones with great ageing potential of at least 15 to 20 years. Their prices will rise rocket high if they are produced by some quality domaines. They are good wine for investment.DRC-LaTache

The quality of Premier Cru wines is also widely recognised with its nearly 2 decades of ageing potential and price rise expectation, as premier cru wine only make up of about 10% of total Burgundy production. The sequence of wording of a premier cru wine label is first the village name followed by premier cru status and lastly the name of vineyard, for example Volnay 1er Cru Les Caillerets, but there are also some examples of not mentioning the vineyard name as the wine might be a mix of different crus. There are a lot of premier crus in Nuits St. George, Vosne Romanee and Pommard, the prices are quite dear if produced by quality producers.

aloxe-corton

Some drinkers find it complicated to differentiate among different classes of burgundy wine, as the name of the best plot of land will be added to the name of village, thus Le Chambertin is added to Gevrey to form Gevrey-Chambertin, Le Musigny is added to Chambolle to become Chambolle-Musigny, Le Montrachet which stretches through Puligny and Chassagne and therefore Puligny-Montrache and Chassagne-Montrachet.

To be clearer about the classification, here is another example of the hierarchy:

Gevrey-Chambertin is a village wine;

gevrey-chambertin-etiquette

Gevrey-Chambertin Premier Cru Les Cazetiers is a premier cru / 1er cru wine;

gevrey-chambertin-1er-cru-les-cazetiers-etiquette

Le Chambertin Grand Cru is a grand cru wine.

chambertin-grand-cru

There is huge difference in price among different classes of wine, so do not overlook the words of Premier Cru / 1er Cru / Grand Cru.

romanee-saint-vivant-les-quatre-journaux-image-moyen

Recently French wine regions were hit by severe climatic situations, such as hot waves in Bordeaux and hail in southern areas. Champagne and Burgundy were also attacked by spring frost too, it is believed that Burgundy will be the spotlight of the whole world since wine production for the 2016 vintage should be a challenge for them to combat the natural disasters.

grands-crus-range-image-moyen

今天擁有多年喝酒經驗的酒友,法國酒幾乎是入門必喝,勃艮第(或稱布根地、勃根第,官方名稱為「布爾岡」)酒也走不出各位飲家的酒單。

corton-charlemagne-image-moyen

勃艮第擁有法國最多數目,超過100個的法定產區(Appellation d’Origine Controlee,簡稱AOC),但是法例准許的葡萄品稱卻只得寥寥幾種,黑葡萄有黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)和佳美(Gamay),白葡萄則是霞多麗(Chardonnay)和阿里哥特(Aligote),當然以黑皮諾和霞多麗釀成的酒,已是勃艮第產酒的絕大部分。即使現實是這樣,各位如有少許享用勃艮第經驗的話,即使由每一瓶都是由黑皮諾釀成,但顏色、香氣和風味,可以有極大差別,因為勃艮第可算是最受風土影響的產區。葡萄酒世界的風土,並不單指泥土,而是氣候、天氣、泥土、方向等等的協同效應,加上勃艮第處於內陸,夏季酷熱、冬季嚴寒,時常受大雨、乾旱、冰雹等攻擊,令勃艮第酒的年分差別十分大,一瓶優質年分的著名勃艮第酒,隨時可以被炒高幾十以至幾百倍。

Burgundy-Wine-Map-wine-folly

勃艮第分五個主要產區,包括夏布利(Chablis)、夜丘(Côte de Nuits)、博納丘(Côte de Beaune)、夏隆納丘(Côte Chalonnaise)和馬可納(Mâconnais),雖然薄酒萊(Beaujolais)也位於勃艮第,但在葡萄酒語言中,勃艮第酒並不包括薄酒萊。

Nuits

勃艮第的葡萄酒和波爾多不同,波爾多的地區分級是頒予了酒莊本身,而勃艮第的分級,則頒予了某一個特定地域或田地,葡萄酒由誰人或哪個酒莊出產,也可得到同一級別,這也是在勃艮第酒標上,字體最大的就是產區名字,而不是生產者和酒莊。

RSVmap3

夏布利以外的其餘四個地域,田地都分為以下幾級,最高級的是特級田Grand Cru,之後就是一級田Premier Cru / 1er Cru,接著便是村酒Village和大地域Bourgogne分級;至於夏布利區在村酒以下,就有了一個小夏布利Petit Chablis分級。

petitchablis

夜丘和博納丘組合成為了黃金之丘(Cote d’Or),夏布利以外的所有勃艮第特級田均在黃金之丘找到,田地面積只佔勃艮第的2%,2010年的總產酒量約為250萬瓶,可是這只算整個勃艮第產酒的1.3%,和不少珍品一樣,數量愈少的愈受歡迎和追捧,Grands Échezeaux、La Romanée、La Tâche、Richebourg、Romanée-Conti、CortonMontrachet 等都是大家耳熟能詳的名字,特級田酒標也只會見到田的名字。這些田地位於面向日照的斜坡上,而且排水度高,能種出高品質葡萄,加上那些區域有嚴格的釀酒規例,確保生產者符合一定水準,產酒量低,品質卻高,而且陳年能力強,即使陳放十五至二十年也不是問題,酒香會更醇厚。如果由知名生產者釀製,價格更會與日俱增,不少投資者也會看準時機入手,為未來作打算。

DRC-LaTache

次一級的一級田Premier Cru酒的質素也是獲得肯定的,陳年潛力可有十多二十年,價格的升值潛力也不能忽視,因為一級田酒只佔據整個勃艮第產酒量的百分之十左右。一級田酒標的寫法,是村名、一級田地位和田地名稱,例如Volnay 1er Cru Les Caillerets,但也有些一級田酒混合多塊田的葡萄,所以便不會看到田名。Nuits St. George、Vosne Romanee、Pommard等等地區都有不少受歡迎的一級田酒,如果由優質的生產者釀製,價格和質素絕對能超越不少特級田酒,選購時不妨認清一下。

aloxe-corton

不少葡萄酒愛好者覺得購買勃艮第酒看酒標時會混亂,就是因為勃艮第的村落命名時會把最佳質素的田地名稱放在村名一起,例如Le Chambertin會加到Gevrey 成為 Gevrey-Chambertin,Chambolle加了Le Musigny成為Chambolle-Musigny,Le Montrachet橫跨Puligny和Chassagne所以會有Puligny-Montrache和Chassagne-Montrachet。

為了更清楚明白,大家可以參考這個分級表:

Gevrey-Chambertin是村酒:

gevrey-chambertin-etiquette

Gevrey-Chambertin Premier Cru Les Cazetiers 是一級田酒:

gevrey-chambertin-1er-cru-les-cazetiers-etiquette

Le Chambertin Grand Cru就是特級田:

chambertin-grand-cru

各級酒在價錢上有很大差異之外,在酒標上的Premier Cru / 1er Cru和Grand Cru字樣便不能忽視了。

romanee-saint-vivant-les-quatre-journaux-image-moyen

近年的法國產酒區可算天災不斷,在夏季,波爾多受熱浪困擾,南部剛受冰雹打擊,年初在香檳和勃艮第也好不了多少,霜凍重擊了這兩個區域。對勃艮第有興趣的酒友,要密切留意勃艮第生產者如何調節他們的工藝,以保持一貫的質素,2016年年分酒將會是十分有趣的一年。

[juiz_sps buttons="facebook, twitter, google, weibo"]